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Is your spice rack lacking in inspiration? Here’s an idea: Incorporate new spices and herbs that are as tasty as they are therapeutic.
You can take your seasoning game to a whole new level with flavorful botanicals that do double-duty as powerful healing agents. Toss that faded parsley and past-its-prime paprika, and restock your pantry with these 12 must-have herbs and spices for every culinary need. Each one will give your dishes and your health a beneficial boost!
Derived from the seed pods of a plant related to ginger, cardamom is prominent in Indian, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian cuisine. You’ve likely had it in a mug of chai. This spice has an aromatic, slightly sweet flavor that adds earthy notes to both savory and sweet dishes. It pairs especially well with apples, carrots, pears, oranges, lamb and lentils.
Cardamom is rich in a variety of antioxidant compounds with anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities, and research shows it protects against a variety of pathogens including E. coli, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter and Salmonella – all strains of bacteria that cause food poisoning. Cardamom also inhibits C. albicans (candida), fights H. pylori bacteria associated with stomach ulcers and may treat ulcers as effectively as anti-ulcer medication.
2. Ginger powder
This dried and ground root from a large family of flowering plants, is key in Asian, Thai and Indian cuisine – and, of course, gingerbread. Ginger’s spicy-sweet, pungent flavor is ideal for both sweet and savory dishes, from scones and ice cream to sweet potatoes and salmon, and pairs especially well with vanilla, curry powder and cayenne pepper.
Traditionally used to enhance digestion and ease stomach upset, ginger is thought to work by blocking serotonin receptors in the stomach and interacting with the central nervous system to reduce queasiness. Research shows ginger is super-effective in preventing nausea caused by motion sickness, pregnancy and even chemotherapy. In some studies, ginger worked better than motion-sickness medication. Ginger’s anti-inflammatory actions have also been shown to ease migraines, relieve pain and decrease stiffness and swelling in arthritis.
Oregano is an herb in the mint family native to the Mediterranean, and it comes in two varieties: Mediterranean and Mexican. Mediterranean oregano has a floral, mild and sweet flavor with anise undertones. Mexican oregano is more pungent, with grassy, earthier notes. Both are featured in Italian, Greek and Mexican cuisines, and they pair especially well with garlic. You can use either variety in any tomato-based dish or add them to vinaigrettes, marinades, eggplant, fava beans, peppers, zucchini and cauliflower.
Oregano is rich in antioxidants, especially carvacrol and thymol – two volatile oils that protect cells from free radical damage, fight inflammation and lessen the risk of heart disease and cancer. Both have potent antibacterial and antiviral potential against E. coli, norovirus, herpes simplex and dozens of strains of bacteria. Some research suggests oregano extract can even block the growth of cancer cells and protect against colon cancer.
4. Cayenne pepper
Made from dried and ground-up red chili peppers, cayenne has a fiery bite that adds neutral flavor and medium heat to any dish. It works especially well in tomato-based dishes like enchilada sauce or salsas, and cayenne pairs well with paprika, cumin, garlic and cilantro. Add it to scrambled eggs, pinto beans or hummus, or stir into mayo for a spicy spread.
Capsaicin, the primary active compound in cayenne, has been shown to increase metabolism, boost fat burning and blunt appetite, possibly by minimizing production of ghrelin, the body’s hunger hormone. Cayenne also has anti-inflammatory properties, and some research suggests capsaicin relaxes blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, protects against stomach ulcers and may reduce the risk of cancer.
This member of the mint family is a primary ingredient in Mediterranean cuisine, and its woodsy, pine-like flavor and aroma add layers of complexity to any dish. Rosemary works especially well in tomato-based sauces, but you can also pair it with potatoes, white beans, shrimp, mushrooms, onions and peas. Or muddle it with lime and honey, then add sparkling water for an aromatic mocktail.
Rosemary is rich in carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, powerful antioxidants that have been shown to lower inflammation and suppress allergy symptoms, including nasal congestion. Other research suggests rosemary protects against carcinogens, and marinating meats in rosemary significantly reduces heterocyclic amines (HCAs) – carcinogenic compounds created when meat is broiled or grilled at high temperatures. Rosemary also appears to bind to heavy metals, protecting the brain, and sniffing rosemary essential oil enhances cognition, improves concentration, boosts mood and lessens stress.
Sourced from the inner bark of a tropical evergreen, cinnamon comes in two varieties. Cassia, or Chinese cinnamon, is a cheaper version with a dark, reddish-brown color and a pungent, spicy flavor. Ceylon, which is also called “true cinnamon,” comes from Sri Lanka, is pricier and offers a warm, mildly sweet and more complex flavor. Both types of cinnamon work well in either sweet or savory dishes. You can blend cinnamon with cumin, curry or cayenne, and add it to curries, rice, or chicken dishes.
Both varieties of cinnamon contain cinnamaldehyde, an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory activities. Cinnamaldehyde is best known for its ability to manage blood sugar and enhance insulin sensitivity, and some research shows cinnamon can significantly lower blood sugar – in some studies, it did so by as much as 29 percent. Other studies show cinnamaldehyde reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
7. Fennel seeds
These fragrant seeds from the fennel plant, which is native to Southern Europe and Asia. They have an aromatic, mildly sweet flavor reminiscent of licorice. You’ll find them in Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern and Indian cuisine, but they’re quite versatile. Fennel seeds can appear in a variety of sweet and savory dishes and desserts. Use them in breads, or in pork, sausage or bean dishes. You can also add them to roasted beets, parsnips, kohlrabi or Brussels sprouts.
Fennel is rich in a variety of volatile compounds, including anethole, limonene, fenchone and methyl chavicol, all of which are antioxidants with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial benefits. Anethole in particular has potent cancer-preventive effects, and research suggests fennel extract can suppress cell growth, promote apoptosis (cancer cell death) and protect against breast and liver cancer. Fennel extract also inhibits the growth of pathogens, including C. albicans and E. coli, promotes cognitive health and may relieve hot flashes, sleep disturbances and other symptoms of menopause.
Cumin is derived from the dried seeds of an herb in the parsley family. It’s a spice with a warm, earthy flavor and distinctive aroma, and you’ll find it in Indian, Mexican and Middle Eastern dishes. Cumin is available as a ground spice and as whole seeds. You can add it to salsa, couscous, lentils or lamb dishes.
Antioxidant compounds, called apigenin and luteolin, present in cumin have anti-inflammatory and antiseptic actions to fight parasites and bacteria. Cumin is also considered a potent spice for cancer prevention, and some research suggests certain types of cumin seed extract can block cancer cell proliferation, and may protect against colon and other forms of cancer. Other studies show cumin can normalize blood sugar, lower cholesterol, enhance memory and ease symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including gas, bloating, nausea and cramps.
This bright-orange powder, which is made from a dried and ground root related to ginger, has a pungent, earthy flavor with bitter-sweet undertones. Turmeric is the primary ingredient in curry blends, and it features prominently in Indian, South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Add it to rice, frittatas, sautéed greens, sweet potato soup, or roasted cauliflower or pumpkin. Or you can try it in sweet dishes, especially paired with ginger, coconut or vanilla.
Turmeric is rich in active compounds, especially curcumin – a potent antioxidant that’s been demonstrated to relieve inflammation and pain. Curcumin works in a similar way as drugs used for arthritis, and research shows curcumin is as effective at treating joint pain and swelling as some anti-inflammatory drugs. Other studies suggest curcumin can improve cognition, ease depression and protect against Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Thyme is a member of the mint family, and it has a bright flavor and fragrant, floral aroma. Common in French, Italian, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, thyme pairs especially well with carrots, Brussels sprouts, white fish and beef. You can also try lemon thyme, a variety with subtle citrus undertones, in sweet dishes like orange sorbet, strawberry jam or poached pears.
Thyme is rich in carvacrol (a compound that’s also in oregano), thymol and other antioxidants with anti-inflammatory benefits. Some research shows thyme extract impacts brain neurons in a way that improves mood and enhances well-being. Thyme is also used to relieve inflammation of the respiratory tract, treat bronchitis and ease coughs and congestion. And other studies suggest thyme extract can reduce high blood pressure and lower cholesterol levels.
Cloves come from the dried flower buds of an evergreen native to Indonesia. This spice has a pungent, spicy-sweet flavor that’s used in a variety of cuisines from Chinese to German. Cloves are best used in flavorful recipes, in small amounts; their pronounced taste can easily overtake delicate dishes. Even a little of this spice adds warmth and complexity to both sweet and savory dishes. Sprinkle cloves over baked ham, roasted winter squash, cream soups and chutneys. Or pair cloves with cinnamon, vanilla and star anise in sweet dishes, like apple tarts, pumpkin pie or butter cookies.
Cloves are rich in eugenol, an antioxidant with powerful anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions. In studies, eugenol has been shown to halt the growth of bacteria and a variety of pathogens, including C. albicans, E. coli and bacteria that contribute to gum disease. Other research suggests cloves can improve insulin resistance, protect against cardiovascular disease, keep blood sugar under control and support bone strength and density.
Sage is one sturdy leaf, and this hardy herb is a relative of mint. A key player in Mediterranean cuisine, sage has an earthy flavor with grassy-herbal notes and undertones of eucalyptus. You’ll find several varieties to choose from: dried leaves, ground sage or rubbed sage. No matter which form you choose, sage works best in highly seasoned soups and stews where its robust flavor won’t overwhelm the dish. You can add it to pumpkin soup, meatballs, risotto, sautéed red cabbage, roasted potatoes or quiche.
Sage is rich in a variety of antioxidants, including rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid (like rosemary), with potent anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Sage has also been shown to benefit brain health, enhancing mood, alertness, memory and cognitive function. In some studies, sage extract improved problem solving, reasoning and other cognitive abilities in patients with Alzheimer’s. And other research suggests sage can lower cholesterol, balance blood sugar and protect against liver, colon, breast, mouth, cervix and other cancers.
Looking for even more inspiration for your spice rack? Make sure your pantry is stocked with these flavorful spices for variety and all kinds of delicious dishes: